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Krasnows aufgebaut. Stalin aufgestellt. Diese besondere Landschaft nennen jajla , von krymsko-tatarisch das Wort jaj - der Sommer.
Jajla - die Sommerweide. Entlang des Meeres hat er sich auf 4 km gestreckt. In 20 Jahre des XIX.
Woronzowa entstanden. Im Palast neben Zimmer. Am Anfang des XX. Simeis und sind die umliegenden Siedlungen von den wunderlichen Bergen und den Felsen, die das besonders trockene und warme Klima bestimmten dicht umgeben.
Sie wurden in der Siedlung Kaziweli rechtfertigt. She explained that she usually had no problems securing messengers, but when Johann Casimir knew that she was preparing letters for her parents, no messenger would be made available.
The last letter from Anna to Amalie is dated 4 June The secret correspondence, which thus far had been sporadic, could now be carried out at regular intervals.
The provenance of her letters thus help to emphasise the interdependence between the various relationships between both groups and individuals within a dynastic figuration.
I consciously employ the terms figuration and interdependence and this requires a mention of the work of Norbert Elias.
The same danger is present if provenance is overestimated as a source. A consequent application of the approach advocated by Elias can even result in a disregard for notions of beginnings and ends, in part because his work regards long-term developments but also because of his insistence on change as a process.
The second point I wish to make regards the dichotomy of autonomy and dependency. Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations, Oxford, first German edition, , especially pp.
However, the tension, which Martin resolves through a distinction between conviction and appearance, bears resemblance to the questionable dichotomy of autonomy and dependency.
By the 16th century, people were reflecting on communication via letters, as the following example shows.
For the present article, see in particular: Roger Chartier dir. La scrittura epistolare femminile tra archivio e tipografia, Roma, Viella, I am grateful to Jeff Shapiro and Pernille Arenfeldt for careful proofreading.
But the episode reveals much more. Letters are here situated in the context of a noble culture, the importance of literacy is pointed out, as is the importance of the delivering and receiving of a letter which can fulfill its purpose only once it has been read by the person to whom it is addressed.
Indeed, Bernardino Pino himself suggests in his treatise a clear distinction between the letter that is being written and the one being received.
I will then proceed to interpret this, in my opinion, emblematic case, focusing mainly on one side of the communication that took place via letters: the reception, that is the act of receiving letters and the significance that was attached to this act.
Bernardino Pino da Cagli. Michele Peretti suo sposo e consorte [hereafter: Lettere diverse]. I developed this interest in a much broader context in my PhD thesis Sotto controllo.
Though well aware of the different typology of the examples I will report on I will deal with published and unpublished letters, written by writers from different social backgrounds , I intend to show their corresponding and contradictory elements in the following paper.
The main purpose of this paper is thus to demonstrate some of the difficulties associated with the interpretation of early modern letters and to challenge their clear-cut categorization as fictional or non-fictional texts.
How shall we contextualize this specific case in which we read texts written by a Roman noblewoman, describing her grief over the absence of the beloved, underlining with remarkable selfconfidence that she is suffering more than he is?
Scholars such as Ago, Casanova, Fosi, Visceglia and Borello have pointed out that the simple existence of a letter may be evidence of effective networking.
Michele Peretti, grandnephew of Sixtus V, had urged Francesco, his only son from his first marriage, to get married to ensure the perpetuation of the family.
When, shortly after the death of his first wife, he first went to meet his future daughter-in-law whom Francesco had chosen, Michele himself fell in love with Anna Maria.
Was there indeed an intense love affair behind the letters, almost untouched by strategic consideration of an alliance between two Roman noble families, or are we overly eager to accept the 19th century idea of romantic love re- presented by Litta?
The relationship that we read about in the letters is mainly confined to the writing and especially the reading of letters.
One of the main themes is reflections on reading and writing. And of course, a precondition for the production of love-letters is literacy, that is access to reading skills also for 7 Cf.
Le politiche matrimoniali della famiglia Spada secc. Rivista di storia delle donne, 21 3 , , pp. Lowe eds. At the beginning of the 17th century, published letter-writing guides so-called libri di lettere were widely distributed in Italy.
In his remarkable study of Le carte messaggiere 16th century letter-writering guides , Amedeo Quondam drew a distinction between other types of letter and the genre of the love letter, the lettera amorosa.
Reinhard M. Nickisch, Die Stilprinzipien in den deutschen Briefstellern des They were all reprinted several times despite censorship, as I will discuss later.
In one popular collection of published letters, the Roman noblewoman Celia withdraws to her room in order to read her letters in private.
It was however rather unusual that letters were read in solitude. In questa seconda Impressione rivedute, et accresciute.
The letters substitute the presence of the beloved. Petrarca, Canzoniere, a cura di P. Cudini, Milano Garzanti , p. I giorni son longhissimi, et i tempi assai cattivi, et V.
He concluded that to while I am reading them over and over. Opereta amorosa, p. The days are terribly long, times are quite hard, and your lordship promised me to come soon, that helps me a bit, tomorrow is Thursday.
Above all he underlined that words needed the consent of the beloved, because she could be looked at without permission, but if she listened to his words or read them, she had to be in agreement.
Verdi , p. Then, since that sex is tender hearted and easily moved to pity, we shall strive to be as supplicating as possible.
We shall extol her merits and belittle our own, or at any rate mention them with great modesty. We shall demonstrate intense love joined to deep despair.
We shall try by turns moaning, flattery, and despair; at other times we shall make skilful use of selfpraise and promises; we shall employ precedents of famous and honourable women who showed favour to a pure, unfeigned love and to the devotion of youths far beneath them in social condition.
We shall attempt to show of humility we shall beg that if she can in no way deign to give her love in return, she will at least resign herself to being loved without prejudice to herself; we shall add that if this request is not granted, we are resolved to cut short a cruel life by whatever means 31 possible.
Flattery and gifts were also useful, great promises could be used as well, because every woman is ultimately seducible, as Boncompagno shows by refererence to the successful seductions of nuns.
In most pedagogical treatises and advice books on behaviour of the second half of the 16th century, we find allusions to the danger attributed to letters.
Literary and Educational Writings 3. Kelly Sowards, translated by Charles Fantazzi, Toronto , p.
Nevertheless in Venice in Mambre had no reservations about having his wife read his correspondence. Inquisitionis, b. The letters were too powerful against the weekness of a female heart, that is easily impressed.
De Bujanda , Quebec seg. ILI , vol. IX, p. ILI, IX, p. The prohibitions, therefore, functioned only partially. Her familiarity with literary texts certainly influenced her writing, but she appropriated the words for her own use.
Celia warned against the possible misuse of letters with the following words. Tale confesso essere di me avenuto. In any case, the copying from letter books was widespread.
Uffizio, b. Lizzari, Cassandra Ruggiero mentions her case, without talking about the love letter.
Guido Ruggiero, Binding Passions. ASV, S. The collection presented a series of ready-made sentences for all occasions arranged in alphabetical order.
Among the aphorisms, we are told how to express joy upon receiving a letter. By the beginning of 17th century, women and men move between standard expressions in their letters, a highly codified genre.
The writing of letters must always be seen in connection with the various ways in which the same letters might be read. Epistolary communication cannot be thought of without considering the moral framework in which the letters were written.
What must be reconstructed are the circumstances of receiving letters, the role of the inbetweens, the specific tactique De Certeau of appropriating texts, and the meaning the exchange of love letters could have.
The correspondents were quite conscious of their use of readymade phrases. It seems worthwhile to investigate in detail how the letter writers tried to overcome the dilemma of expressing themselves forced to use inevitable standard expressions.
Barthes recognizes behind this dilemma a semantic standard feature. Raccolti da lui per scrivere familiarmente, Roma Vincenzo Valgrisi Dolfi gives a convincing interpretation of this fragment in the introduction to A.
Atti di seminario. Trento, maggio , Roma , pp. Jahrhundert erhoben worden waren. Erst in den achtziger Jahren des Beatrix Bastl, Tugend, Liebe, Ehre.
Faksimiledruck nach den Ausgaben von und Mit einem Nachwort von Reinhard M. Nickisch, Stuttgart Briefkultur im So schreibt Johanna Theresia Harrach, geborene von Lamberg, am Juli an ihren Mann Ferdinand Bonaventura I.
Diese galten aber nicht unbegrenzt und wurden manchmal gnadenlos dechiffriert. Alltag bei Hof im ausgehenden Juni in der Linzer Burg inhaftiert wurde.
Oktober Juni auf dem Platz am Hof in Wien enthauptet. Was mier leider, gott erbarms, mein liebster herr und gemahll vonn seinem leydigen zustandt zugeschriben, das wird mein herr vetter aus beyliegender seiner handtschrift vernehmen, darauf ich umb godt und es jungsten gericht willen mein flehendlichs und hochfreundlichs bidten, mein her vedter wolle sich alsbalt, und in angesicht dieses schreibens aufmachen unnd durchaus in erwegung der hechsten noth nicht ausbleiben Eine Festgabe Hermann Wiesflecker zum Geburtstag, Graz , S.
Juni Erst im So schreibt Helena, die in das Franziskanerinnenkloster Hl. Deine treue schwester bis in tod, Helena von 24 Schallnberg.
Chaufontaines, August 6. Es geht nicht um eine Opposition zwischen Umgangston und Kanzleistil, sondern um den Versuch die Darstellung des Selbst innerhalb des Briefschreibens zu kultivieren.
Sprechinhalte sollten verbal rekonstruiert werden. Jahrhunderts bereits zu beobachten. Jahrhundert29 oder die Korrespondenz zwischen Judith von Ungnad gest.
Adlige Ehen im Purpose and form of epistolary conversation between aristocratic siblings Siena 17th century by Benedetta Borello In recent years, careful analysis carried out on correspondence by historians, anthropologists and linguists has emphasized one of its fundamental functions: the letter creates social relationships.
In particular, family letters have offered very fertile ground for investigation. The letters show us that within the aristocratic families there existed areas of more intense relationships or relations of a different type.
Sigismondo was ten when he moved to Rome, and his moving away from home was indispensable and fairly urgent.
Second child but only and very beloved son of Francesca Piccolomini, since the other children were born from Olimpia Della Ciaia , with an uncle who was Pope, Sigismondo was to take up an ecclesiastic career and become a cardinal at only eighteen.
Departure from Siena gave way to a consistent flow of letters directed to the young prelate. The family archive preserves the correspondence written by Olimpia Chigi, third child of Augusto and Olimpia Della Ciaia, as well as wife of Giulio Gori as of There are about ninety letters written between and , nearly all addressed to her brother.
The letters written by Francesca Piccolomini, numerous and well preserved, bear witness to a very intense relationship.
Their mother, who had stayed in Siena, seemed invested with the duty of managing the family relationships in toto.
Over the following pages I will reconstruct the family networks that the Chigi siblings wove during the second half of the 17th century between Siena and Rome, comparing the two relationship systems with that bound between mother and son.
I would like to show how the scope of the single letters sent by the two women blends with their manners of expression.
Epistolary conversations between siblings served to create a dense area, that integrated well with the overall family equilibrium, with the strategies pursued, and with the primogeniture logic.
Brother and sisters The relationship between siblings, their conflicts and their complicity are a topic that still merits an in-depth study.
Lawrence Stone, for example, suggested various times in his Family, Sex and Marriage in England, the intensity of the sibling relationship in the sixteenth and seventeenth century family.
Following the path marked by Hans Medick and David Sabean and above all by Martine Segalen in their volume,11 the editors of the issue of Quaderni Storici dwelled on the reconstruction and redefinition of the male and female roles at the time of transmission or division of patrimony.
In the inheritance game or in the creation of a circuit of dowries, strongly complementary matters between siblings seem to emerge within families.
Yet the letters also witnessed an on-going play of readjustment to reabsorb asymmetries of power and conflicts, playing with different wording as well.
Secret and confidence In the two epistolaries written by the sisters Chigi to their brother I seem to find a solid bond between siblings who, between Siena and Rome, worked together, each one within their own sphere in the interest in the lineage.
The domestic roles covered by Sigismondo Chigi, Olimpia Chigi Gori and Sister Maria Pulcheria Chigi, cut out precise scopes of action for the siblings and defined their duties.
Nevertheless, the letters show how the functions could work well together, creating alternative spaces yet nonetheless essential to the most traditional family dynamics, characterising the logic of the primogeniture.
The topics of the letters were varied and, naturally, the reasons the two sisters decided to take pen in hand were different.
At times though, the restricted circulation of news could even not take the form of transmitting a secret or a confidence.
Within the family there could actually be a kind of specialisation by topic. Some could be delegated to deal with certain matters in their letters, while others intentionally ignored them.
After the volume edited by Hans Medick and David Sabean, it is superfluous to say that, within these family networks, woven transversally and that could take on various shapes, material interests and affection were indissolubly bound.
This can be seen quite well in a letter written by Sister Maria Pulcheria at the end of This time the letter was the fruit of family collaboration.
Sister Pucheria wrote with her young niece Angela Chigi,17 brought up in the cloisters. The epistolary conversation between the two siblings concerned another Chigi, whom sender and addressee claimed to know well.
Benedetta Borello, Trame sovrapposte. Wife of the only Roman Chigi, Agostino, Maria Virginia had had only one boy and, so far, seven girls.
She was to have four more girls. On 16 November , only Angela was left at Campansi, seven years old. According to what Sister Pulcheria wrote to her brother Sigismondo, aunt and niece had no misgivings.
Regular and necessary correspondence showed each family member the existence of a kinship front where advice, goods and services circulated.
The second part of the letter was dedicated to confidentiality, sending secrets and intimate, personal impressions, which, along with the social aspect, were the other key element of the correspondence.
Her aunt tells about how, after a series of fevers, the little girl recovered and seemed to be enjoying good health. There is no doubt about the sincerity of these words.
This letter, as nearly all the others, talks about the monastery, about Roman relatives who would be guests there, and other matters are touched on that had never been discussed in the correspondence of the other sister, Olimpia Chigi.
The two epistolaries run parallel, almost never intersecting. Reading the nearly twenty years of correspondence of the two women with their brother, there are no more than two mentions of one of them a name or sarcastic comment in the correspondence of the other one.
This is not the case, for example, for Francesca Piccolomini. Nearly all her letters to her son had news about the health of family members, information about the management of the family assets and about the economic situation of the married sisters; it was always Francesca who took care of telling Sigismondo how to behave with the other sister or with the aunts in the monastery, which were places Francesca frequented no less assiduously than the drawing rooms of noble palaces or country villas.
Even though bonded by affection and material interests to their cardinal brother, the two women had woven, within the family atmosphere, networks that were nearly independent and fairly tight knit between them.
The style of their epistolary conversation, the circuits for transmitting news and secrets depicted these two webs of relationships quite differently.
Yet both sisters had an intense and articulate relationship with Sigismondo. Correspondence served to build dense areas of social relations, that could be used to contrast the destructive logic of the primogeniture and maintain a bridge between the new and the old city, between the Roman Curia and Siena.
The two sisters used the pen differently. Aside from the topics, the recounting of events, the confidential information they sent their brother, the form of their letters was different too.
The language she used reveals a fairly good education, which she had at the Campansi monastery at the knee of her aunt, Sister Maria Agnese Chigi.
Yet her handwriting was terrible, at least if compared to that of her sister. Maybe she had little bent for holding a pen, since the handwriting of her aunt was much better.
In writing to her brother, she concealed no detail of her life. She went through her 19 Cf. Girolamo in Campansi zu Siena und SS.
Studien zu Ehren von Hermann Hoberg, 1. Teil, Rome , pp. She also told things that, if expressed publicly or referred to the person concerned, would have offended them.
Her pen was biting even with her family. What Olimpia told in confidence to her brother on 9 December not only put Sister Maria Pulcheria in a bad light, but if it had been made public it could have upset the plans for the destiny of the young Roman Chigi girls.
Suor Maria Pulcheria and maybe part of the Sienese branch would have been kept more at the margins of family life.
That did not happen: Sigismondo opportunely kept his silence, not believing his sister and, implicitly, protecting the other sister.
Aside from keeping secrecy, this correspondence reveals clear reciprocity. Olimpia and Sigismondo spoke the same language, knew the same people well and could share secrets.
Brother and sister handled letters in the same manner. Distance could impoverish the baggage of mutual experiences.
And even a different way of handling what was written could damage the solidity of an epistolary bond. Showing a confidential writing, like betraying a secret, was considered a grave offence.
On 1st January , for example, Francesca Piccolomini asked Sigismondo not to show the letter that she had sent him; a week later she insisted with the same request, giving as a reason the low literary level of her compositions, but a more likely reason was to be able to dialogue more freely with her son.
Regular correspondence was, in this case too, conceived as an obligation. It is clear, although, that the exchange of correspondence was less intense in its content, just as the density of the relationships that intertwined in that area of kinship was less intense.
In a few months the matrimony transformed her from a convent girl to the centre of a vast epistolary network that embraced Naples, Milan and the Farnese court of Parma, where her aunts lived.
Steadfast writing was an obligation from which the young woman, like every other aristocrat, could not evade.
Per iscritto. Antropologia delle scritture quotidiane, Lecce , pp. The tone was ceremonious, not unbecoming to an Aldobrandini woman, but quite different to what was used in the Chigi household, at least between Sigismondo and his sisters.
In such cases the letter became precious as a handwritten gift, to exhibit in witness of a bond that could be traced back only by the name and coat of arms.
When compared to those written to Sigismondo, the intimacy and density of relationships between siblings can immediately be seen.
Pulcheria had no qualms about asking her brother for money, even insistently. Money seems to me to be a revealing detail in understanding the confidence and intimacy that there could be between sender and addressee, as can be seen in the two examples that follow, where Olimpia Maidalchini and Olimpia Aldobrandini broached the subject in their letters.
In mid December , Olimpia Maidalchini made a comment to her mother about some expenses made by her brother, Andrea, on the occasion of his marriage.
Between Olimpia and her mother, during the twenties of the seventeenth century, a heavy, confidential epistolary dialogue developed. The topic of the letter could make this area of kinship more dense.
When the wedding had already taken place, Olimpia bitterly scolded her mother for the money wasted on the celebration. In fact, gold palls had been bought, by then out of fashion.
Neither aunts nor niece would have ever dared criticise expenses for clothes or carriages, as Olimpia Maidalchini did.
It is difficult to establish whether this lack could be attributed to scarce intimacy between aunts and niece, or to a total lack of information about the true value of things.
Both possibilities seem likely. Olimpia saw little of the other Aldobrandini women. The sums mentioned in the various letters were different: Sister Maria Pulcheria wanted a small amount for her personal needs, on the other hand Francesca asked about the lifestyle she would lead after the departure of her sons for Rome.
Some conclusions Study of the correspondence, the careful analysis of the expressive forms and the placing of the epistolary gesture in the time of the family and its internal 23 Ibid.
From this point of view, I believe I can identify the more popular channels of transmission of news, affective bonds, exchange of goods and services.
One is certainly that between sister and brother, and I think I can add between sistersand brothers-in-law and at times between sons- and daughters-in-law.
The members of this family used to create intimacy with some of their parents and these dense areas influenced decisions and strategies of the whole family group.
The letters that both wrote are evidence of this work together. Correspondence and therefore dialogue and not only the manner of address 24 Ibid.
Alongside this, I feel that interesting ideas can be obtained from the study of houses and of division of space inside them, from the circulation of knowledge, the consumption of family goods and from devotion.
Ende des Jahrhundert nicht mehr anerkannt. Jahrhundert etwa fl. Karl F. Allerdings war keineswegs sicher, ob derjenige, an den diese Berichte gerichtet waren, der Kaiser, sie jemals zu Gesicht bekam.
Die einzige Antwort, die die Antragsteller zu erwarten hatten und gleichzeitig die einzige, an der sie interessiert waren, war ein positiver Bescheid und letztlich die kaiserliche Verleihung.
Denn vom formalen Gesichtspunkt aus betrachtet handelt es sich eindeutig um Briefe und nicht etwa um Antragsformulare.
Die vor allem im In den bisher eingesehenen Akten lassen sich grob zwei Grundtypen unterscheiden, die sich beide von auch heute noch angewandten rhetorischen Strategien nicht wesentlich zu unterscheiden scheinen.
Daher erschien es notwendig zu sein, nicht nur von den Leistungen, die eine Nobilitierung rechtfertigten, zu berichten, sondern den Kaiser bzw.
Jahrhundert weitgehend fremd. Supplikanten des Obwohl erst zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts, insbesondere von Unternehmern, gemacht wurde.
The letter, which represents a letter of friendship, aimed explicitly at strengthening the ties existing between the two courts.
Komplimentierkunst und Gesellschaftsrituale im altdeutschen Sprachraum, Stuttgart The paying of compliments was appropriate on many specific and special occasions, for instance, on the birth of a prince or a princess, marriages, the new year or for giving condolences.
Over several centuries, they served as indicators of the quality of the diplomatic relationship between courts. Juni , Stuttgart , pp.
Altman, Letter Manual, p. Apart from the use of French in the court sphere, further elements of distinction are, for example, the self-discipline which was required for maintaining correspondences over a long period of time and which even becomes obvious in the specific posture that was needed for the writing of letters.
Steinhausen, Brief, vol. Correspondingly, also contemporaries regarded letter writing as the prerogative of a leisured class.
Furthermore, the maintenance of intensive correspondences, especially when held with famous personalities, contributed to the social prestige of a person.
Similarly, even dynastic plans were very dependent on epistolary knowledge, or, to put it in other words, given the arranging of marriages through letters, even the social reproduction of aristocracy was closely tied to such skills.
The teaching of princely children in epistolary When Prince Friedrich of Baden-Durlach wrote his first letter he was six years old; the first still existing letter which his brother, Karl Ludwig, sent to his father, was written when he aged seven.
But whereas Fouquet does not distinguish these letters from pure ceremonial letters, in my opinion a clear differentiation is possible, as the ceremonial letter cited below will demonstrate.
Steinhausen, Brief, p. The ability to write a letter, especially a ceremonial letter, therefore served to mark social boundaries.
To guarantee such an advantage in time, formal instruction necessarily had to begin at an early age. Unfortunately, there exists no time table for the instruction of the Princes of Baden-Durlach for the time before the oldest prince then was 9 years old, and his younger brother Friedrich was eight.
Nevertheless the time-table points to the great importance which was attributed to the ability of writing letters at court.
As part of her instruction, she had 7 For this term cf. Pierre Bourdieu, La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement, Paris , pp.
This distinctive advantage in time was ensured by certain rules of decorum, cf. The letters cited in the following all refer to the family archive of the Markgrafen resp.
These letters, written by French native speakers, were probably regarded as exemplary. Whereas for her father, the hereditary Prince of Hessen-Darmstadt, Karoline Luise explicitly noted that she should not use more than six lines, the greeting for her grandfather, the ruling Landgraf, was supposed to stretch over seven lines.
For the role of memoria within noble culture cf. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt a. Abhandlung vom guten Geschmacke in Briefen, published in In any case the abolition of ceremonial letters demanded by Gellert apparently did not have a great effect on court etiquette, at least not earlier than the very last decades of the century.
Wiedau, Kindheit, p. Altman, Letter Manual, pp. These manuals originally followed courtly style. As to Weise cf.
Ein Beitrag zu C. Some extracts of his letter manuals next to commentaries are published in: Angelika Ebrecht [et al.
Texte, Kommentare, Essays, Stuttgart , pp. Letters of compliment by princely children As letters of compliment did not so much aim at communicating concrete information as at expressing oneself in a most artificial, stilted way, such letters demanded special epistolary skills.
I and her letter to Friedrich dating from 6 June , no. See 5, Corresp. Of the letters written by the sons to their mother, hardly any have been handed down with the exception of some letters written by Karl Ludwig among which three letters of compliment can be found, in 5A, Corresp.
Charles Louis de Bade. The ceremonial letters written by the young princess Karoline Luise to her father and grandfather use even a more sophisticated and eloquent language, in 5A, Corresp.
Both point to her outstanding social position and her role as ruling princess. Thus the perspective of the outside world regarding his own mother is inculcated and internalised by the young prince.
In fact, occasional letters of princely children can be compared to letters of homage, by which the familiarly dependencies were renewed yearly, exactly as was the case with the dependencies on a political, juridical level.
In other letters, the children explicitly thank their parents for their fatherly or motherly care. Whereas Beetz thinks that these expressions of submission in letters between children and parents were only used until the first third of the 18th century, those here presented provide a different picture.